DOTTED MINIMS

 Dotted minims Rhythm Patterns Ties Repeat Signs Quiz - Quiz Answers Exercises Song - 'When the Saints' Lesson Material Music Notation Overview :Basic Theory 1 - Basic Theory 2

Learn to Read Music | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | ? ? |

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RM 7.1 - Dotted Minims

A dot after a note lengthens that note by half its value.

Therefore :

 Dotted Semibreve = 4 + 1/2 x 4 = 6 beats Dotted Minim = 2 + 1/2 x 2 = 3 beats Dotted Crotchet = 1 + 1/2 x 1 = 11/2 beats

The dotted semibreve is rarely used in modern music.
We will use the dotted crotchet later in this course.

In this lesson we will use the dotted minim.

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RM 7.2 - Rhythm Patterns

 Learning to read music is much like learning to read the written word.First you learn to read each note individually, just like the letters of the alphabet. Gradually your focus will widen to take in more notes at a time. This is when you start to recognise musical elements similar to words and phrases. These musical elements are expressed as : patterns of pitch - such as chords, scales, digital patterns, and patterns of rhythm.

Here are some 1 bar long rhythm patterns of crotchets and minims typical for songs in 3/4 time. The dotted minim is extensively used in this time signature (the waltz) as it fits exactly within the (3 crotchet beats) bar.

Audio 7.1
(The rhythm of each bar is played 4 times before moving to the next bar.)

The same rule on 'minim rests' applies as discussed in the Lesson 6.

a minim note may be drawn across the centre of a (3 crotchet beat) bar, but a minim rest may not!

Always use crotchet rests in 3/4 time signatures. This clearly shows each beat in the bar.

Here are some typical 1 bar rhythm patterns of crotchets and longer notes in 4/4 time.

Audio 7.2
(The rhythm of each bar is played 4 times before moving to the next bar.)

Memorise these patterns (one bar at a time), clap the rhythms with your hands while tapping the beats with your foot, and try to recognise them in music scores as you read through them.

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RM 7.3 - Ties

A tie is a curved line placed over or under two notes of the same pitch.
The tie joins the two notes together making one continuous note.

In the example below - the minim on beats 3 and 4 in the first bar is tied to the crotchet on the first beat in the 2nd bar. This extend the note to 3 beats spanning across the bar line. The same configuration appears in bars 3 and 5.

• Wind instrument players - do not tongue these notes twice, (once for the minim and again for the crotchet), but hold them for the full combined length of 3 beats.

• Pianists and Guitarists - likewise : sustain these notes for their combined ( 3 beat) value and do not play them twice.

Articulate only the note at the beginning of the tie.

Audio 7.3

In the last bar two semibreves are tied together to form one continuous 8 beat note.

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RM 7.4 - Repeat Signs

When a section of music has to be played twice, a pair of dots, combine with a thin/thick double bar line, is placed at the beginning of the section and another pair at the end.

Used this way the dots act as buffers, bouncing you back to the previous pair of dots.

When there is only one pair of dots, the repeat is made back to the beginning of the piece.

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RM 7.5 - Quiz

1. What happens when a dot is place behind a note ?

2. How many beats are there in the 3/4 time bar, and how long is each beat ?

3. How many crotchet beats are there in a dotted minim ?

4. Which popular dance is in 3/4 time ?

5. Can a semibreve note be used in a bar in 3/4 time ?

6. Can a minim rest be used in a bar in 3/4 time ?

7. In 3/4 time - When two notes each of different duration (crotchet or longer) fill a complete bar, which are they ?

8. In 4/4 time - When two notes each of different duration (crotchet or longer) fill a complete bar, which are they ?

9. What is the purpose of a tie ?

10. When two notes are tied together are they each articulated (tongued, struck) separately ?

11. What is the purpose of repeat signs ?

12. When there is only one repeat sign present, where does the repeat start from ?

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RM 7.6 - Exercises

Exercise 7.1
Draw all note stems correctly in Exercise 7.1.

Draw all bar lines at their correct positions in Exercise 7.1.

Tap the beat with your foot (or feet) while clapping (or calling out) each note in the exercises at their correct starting points.

Play Exercise 7.1 on your instrument at your own pace, while tapping the beats with your foot (or feet) and counting them (1 2 3) in your mind. (Notation for BASS CLEF players)

Play Exercise 7.1 on your instrument using a metronome, while tapping the beats with your foot (or feet) and counting them (1 2 3) in your mind. (Notation for BASS CLEF players)

Exercise 7.2
Draw all bar lines at their correct positions in Exercise 7.2.

Tap the beat with your foot (or feet) while clapping (or calling out) each note in the exercises at their correct starting points.

Play Exercise 7.2 on your instrument at your own pace, while tapping the beats with your foot (or feet) and counting them (1 2 3 4) in your mind. (Notation for BASS CLEF players)

Play Exercise 7.2 on your instrument using a metronome, while tapping the beats with your foot (or feet) and counting them (1 2 3 4) in your mind. (Notation for BASS CLEF players)

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RM 7.7 - Song : When the Saints go Marchin' in

A triad is a chord which consists of a stack of three notes.

A seventh chord consists of a stack of four notes. (The interval between the root and top note being a 7th.)

The harmonies of numerous popular songs consist of only three different chords.
They are the I chord, IV chord and the V (or V7) chord.

The Roman numerals refer to the positions of the chords within a major scale(see Lesson 10).
For the C major scale the I, IV and V7 chords are :

Audio 7.4

In So far So Good all three triad chords are used.
In When the Saints go Marchin' In only the I chord and the V7 chord are used.

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RM 7.8 - Lesson Materials

ItemSheet MusicMidi Files
General files Manuscript paper
Exercises Exercise 7.1 Answers 7.1 C instr. Bb instr. Eb instr.
Exercise 7.2 Answers 7.2 C instr. Bb instr. Eb instr.
Bass Clef Notation Exercise 7.1 Bass Clef
Exercise 7.2 Bass Clef
'When the Saints' Treble & Bass Keyboard C instr. Bb instr. Eb instr.
Metronomes 70 bpm 80 bpm 90 bpm

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